If you are looking to find good bicycle routes of all sorts including commuting, short, and long distance, check out bikely.com. Membership is free and the routes are all posted by bicyclists who have traveled them. The site provides bicycle routes all around the world.
The Madison section includes at least 5 pgs of routes such as:
Sugar River Ice Age;
Lake Monona Loop;
Madison to Cambridge;
Campus to Westside;
Posted by Attorney Clayton Griessmeyer-Wisconsin Bicycle Accident Lawyer